Diagnosis & Assessment

Table of Contents

  1. Measuring Blood Pressure
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Home Measurement
  4. Ambulatory Measurement
  5. Lab Tests
  6. Supplementary Tables

Credits

Hypertension Canada’s 2020 Comprehensive Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, and Treatment of Hypertension in Adults and Children

a. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Doreen M. Rabi, MD, MSc, Alexander A. Leung, MD, MPH
b. Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health Services, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Kerry A. McBrien, MD, MPH
c. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McGill University and Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada – Ruth Sapir-Pichhadze, MD, MSc, PhD
d. Department of Pediatrics and Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, McGill University, and Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada – Meranda Nakhla, MD, MSc
e. Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, and Alberta Kidney Disease Network, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Sofia B. Ahmed, MD, MMSc, Sandra M. Dumanski, MD
f. Departments of Medicine and Community Health Sciences, O’Brien Institute for Public Health, and Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Sonia Butalia, BSc, MD, MSc
g. Children’s Heart Centre, BC Children’s Hospital, and Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada – Kevin C. Harris, MD, MHSc
h. Department of Nursing, Universite du Quebec à Trois-Rivières, Trois- Rivières, Quebec, Canada – Lyne Cloutier, RN, PhD
i. O’Brien Institute for Public Health, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Kelly B. Zarnke, MD, MSc
j. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada – Marcel Ruzicka, MD, PhD, Gregory L. Hundemer, MD, MPH
k. University of Ottawa and the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada – Swapnil Hiremath, MD, MPH
l. Winnipeg Regional Health Authority and the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada – Ross D. Feldman, MD
m. Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, and Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada – Sheldon W. Tobe, MD, MScCH
n. Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Tavis S. Campbell, PhD, RPsych
o. Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Applied Physiology, Concordia University, and Montreal Behavioural Medicine Centre, CIUSSS- NIM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada – Simon L. Bacon, PhD
p. Division of General Internal Medicine, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Kara A. Nerenberg, MD, MSc
q. Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada – George K. Dresser, MD, PhD, Jeffrey E. Alfonsi, MD , Steven E. Gryn, MD, Robert A. Hegele, MD
r. Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Department of Pediatrics, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada – Anne Fournier, MD
s. Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Ellen Burgess, MD
t. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada – Patrice Lindsay, RN, PhD
u. Vancouver Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada – Simon W. Rabkin, MD
v. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada – Ally P.H. Prebtani, MD
w. Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada – Steven Grover, MD, MPA
x. Centre Hospitalier del’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada – George Honos, MD
y. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada – JoAnne Arcand, PhD, RD
z. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHU Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, Quebec, Canada – François Audibert, MD, MSc
aa. Service de nephrologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Geneviève Benoit, MD
bb. Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; – Jesse Bittman, MD, Nadia A. Khan, MD, MSc, Laura M. Kuyper, MD, Birinder K. Mangat, MD, MPH, Karen Tran, MD, MHSc
cc. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; – Peter Bolli, MD
dd. Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; – Anne-Marie Côte, MD, MHSc
ee. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, University of British Columbia, BC Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; – Janis Dionne, MD
ff. Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, and LifeLabs LP, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Andrew Don-Wauchope, MD
gg. Department of Medicine, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA; – Cedric Edwards, MD,j Tabassum Firoz, MD, MSc
hh. Department of Cardiology, Selkirk Regional Health Centre, Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada; – Jonathan Y. Gabor, MSc, MD
ii. University of Toronto, Division of Endocrinology, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – -Richard E. Gilbert, MBBS, PhD
jj. Universite de Montreal, Institut de cardiologie de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; -Jean C. Gregoire, MD
kk. Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, and Canadian Collaborative Research Network, Brampton, Ontario, Canada; – Milan Gupta, MD
ll. Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; – Fady Hannah-Shmouni, MD
mm. Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; – Robert J. Herman, MD
nn. Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; – Michael D. Hill, MD, MSc
oo. Departments of Medicine, Libin Cardiovascular Institute and Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada;- Jonathan G. Howlett, MD
pp. Department of Medicine, Southern Medical Program, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada; – Charlotte Jones, PhD, MD
qq. Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Universite de Montreal and CRCHUM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Janusz Kaczorowski, PhD
rr. Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM), Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, MD
ss. University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Montreal Behavioural Medicine Centre, CIUSSS-NIM, Hôpital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Kim L. Lavoie, PhD
tt. Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Lawrence A. Leiter, MD
uu. Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; – Richard Lewanczuk, MD, PhD
vv. Mount Sinai Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Alexander G. Logan, MD
ww. Department of Women and Children’s Health, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, and Department of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom; – Laura A. Magee, MD, MSc
xx. Division of Nephrology, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Philip A. McFarlane, MD, PhD
yy. Alberta Health Services and Covenant Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; – Donna McLean, RN, NP, PhD
zz. École des sciences infirmières, FMSS, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; – Andre Michaud, RN, PhD
aaa. Department of Medicine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada; – Alain Milot, MD, MSc
bbb. St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Gordon W. Moe, MD, MSc
ccc. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; – S. Brian Penner, MD
ddd. Division of Prevention and Rehabilitation, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; – Andrew Pipe, MD
eee. Department of Neurosciences, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Alexandre Y. Poppe, MD
fff. Departments of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHU Sainte- Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Evelyne Rey, MD, MSc
ggg. Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Michael Roerecke, PhD
hhh. Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Ernesto L. Schiffrin, MD, PhD
iii. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Peter Selby, MBBS, MHSc
jjj. McMaster University, Hamilton Health Sciences, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; – Mike Sharma, MD, MSc
kkk. Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; – Ashkan Shoamanesh, MD
lll. Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; – Praveena Sivapalan, MD
mmm. Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; – Raymond R. Townsend, MD
nnn. Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Luc Trudeau, MD
ooo. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; – Ross T. Tsuyuki, BSc (Pharm), PharmD, MSc
ppp. Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Michel Vallee, MD, PhD
qqq. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; – Vincent Woo, MD
rrr. Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; – Alan D. Bell, MD
sss. Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University, and Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; – Stella S. Daskalopoulou, MD, MSc, DIC, PhD